GLOBAL MARKET BASED MEASURES (MBM) SCHEME
Aviation industry contributes about 2% of total global CO2 emissions according to IPCC and ICAO’s reports. In 2010, ICAO adopted two sectoral aspirational goals of 2% annual fuel efficiency improvement and carbon neutral growth from 2020.
In recognition, the 38th Session of the ICAO Assembly adopted Resolution A38-18, which defined a basket of measures designed to help achieve the ICAO's global aspirational goal.
This basket includes;
- Improvements in aircraft technologies.
- Air operational and infrastructural improvements.
- Sustainable aviation fuels
- Market-based measures (MBMs).
Total potential benefits achieved by non-MBMs measures will be insufficient for the international aviation sector to reach its aspirational goal of carbon-neutral growth from 2020.
A global MBM scheme is necessary to complement benefits achieved from the other measures. A global MBM prevents the risk of patchwork of regional and local measures that are not harmonized and could create inefficiencies in the system without any certainty of delivering environmental benefits.
ICAO worked actively to develop a global solution for addressing CO2 emissions from international aviation.
AFCAC’s work so far;
AFCAC organized a One-Day Symposium on Aviation Environment and Climate Change which was held back-to-back with the ICAO Global Dialogues (GLADs) on CO2 mitigation from international civil aviation at the AFCAC Headquarters in Dakar, Senegal on the 25th March 2016.
The Symposium was organized following the conclusions reached at the AFCAC Air Transport Committee Meeting held in Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe in May 2015, which urged AFCAC Secretariat to convene a Symposium to capacitate member States on the proposed Global Market Based Measures (GMBM) prior to the ICAO High Level Conference on Environment.
The objectives of the symposium were to: discuss and have a common position on the Global MBM Scheme; ensure that the interests of the African region are taken on board in the design of the Global MBM Scheme including Special Circumstances and Respective Capabilities (SCRC) of States, Exemptions, differentiation, etc.; confirm African region’s preparedness in implementing the Global MBM Scheme
The Symposium served as a forum for the exchange of views and information on the proposed ICAO Global Market Based Measure (GMBM) scheme, ICAO activities since A38, Types of MBM, Key elements of an aviation MBM, Impact of MBMs on aviation growth, roles of stakeholders, Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) and development of Registry (ies), the implications of MBM on African States and Operators as well as a panel discussion on Africa’s preparedness to implement a GMBM.
With the adoption of the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA) by the 39th Session of the ICAO Assembly, the actual implementation will begin with a pilot phase from 2021 through 2023, followed by a first phase from 2024 through 2026. Participation in both of these early stages will be voluntary and the next phase from 2027 to 2035 would see all States on board.
As of 11 January 2018, 73 States representing more than 87.7 % of international aviation activity intend to voluntarily participate in CORSIA from its outset and among them are only 6 African States namely: Burkina Faso, Kenya, Zambia, Gabon, Namibia and Nigeria.
The ICAO adopted GMBM is Carbon Offsetting Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA).
- CORSIA implementation
ICAO CORSIA CO₂ Estimation and Reporting Tool (CERT)
CORSIA Eligible Emissions Units